Password Spraying: Definition, How It Works, and How to Stop It
Last updated on December 8, 2023
Automated tools and a huge amount of information available on the dark web make password spraying attacks a rising threat, especially for organizations.
Once they compromise an account, the cybercriminal can exfiltrate sensitive data from your company, engage in lateral movement, or even blackmail you. The consequences of such an incident can range from financial to reputation loss.
This article will explain what password spraying is, how a password spraying attack works, and how you can use cybersecurity technology to prevent it.
What Is Password Spraying?
Password spraying is a type of brute-force attack where a threat actor tries to match a username with a password to gain access to an account. This process is usually done by automated tools and evades modern security software, remaining undetected by using the same passwords on multiple accounts (most accounts will block you if you introduce the wrong password several times).
The attacker uses a list of common or easy-to-guess passwords like “password” or “123456” that can be found on the Internet or was put together by him. This is why organizations with standardized usernames like “firstname.lastname@example.org” are among the favorite victims. Single Sign-On (SSO) is another attractive feature for cybercriminals because if such an account is breached it will grant access to a range of highly important information about a company.
How Password Spraying Works?
Weak password management is what makes password spraying attacks such a successful business. Using an obvious password or reusing credentials for multiple platforms are two of the most common mistakes done by users that become victims of cybercriminals.
Let’s take a look at the most common steps involved in this type of attack:
1 A list of passwords
It all starts with a list of common/possible passwords, like “Password123”. And is not a guessing game, threat actors can buy such a list on the Internet. But this type of lists are also published as curiosities, like the Wikipedia page with “the most common passwords, discovered in various data breaches” or the Top 200 most common passwords.
PS: Take a look at those lists and avoid the passwords you find there.
2 A list of usernames
A stolen list of usernames can be easily found on the dark web, but it can also be created by malicious actors. They can use the patterns that corporate email addresses conform to and a list of employees of a certain company. Online research on the company and social engineering are also involved in creating a possible username.
3 Match them together
The last step is to match the list of passwords with the list of usernames to find a valid combination that will grant the hacker access to a user account.
The matching process is done automatically. The cybercriminals use a tool that tries one password with every user, before doing the same thing with the next password, and the next, and the next until access is granted. This way the hacker avoids being caught by account lockout policies or IP address blockers, which limit failed login attempts.
What Damage a Password Spraying Attack Can Do?
Once a hacker is in one of your company’s accounts there is no way to tell where he will stop.
The main goal of a threat actor is to do as much damage/ steal as much data as possible. So, depending on the level of access that the breached account has, he can exfiltrate personal data and organization information, like business-critical details about intellectual property and other things.
Hackers will use your network vulnerabilities to move laterally in the system in order to gain access to critical infrastructure. A compromised account could be used to obtain an email address list and to spread the attack forward.
The wider the range of permissions that an infected user has, the greater the hit for the organization’s security posture and the bigger the risk for sensitive data.
How to Stay Safe from Password Spraying Attacks?
This type of attack prays mainly on our human nature to make things as easy as possible – see the go-to passwords that all of us have. Consequently, staying safe from them involves a few simple but efficient measures:
In case of any data loss, work with a cybersecurity firm for incident response, forensics, and further investigation.
If you detect a spike in login attempts on the SSO portal, this could be a sign of an attack, so monitor your network for such anomalies.
How Can Heimdal® Help?
Heimdal Endpoint Detection and Response is a complex cybersecurity technology designed to protect endpoints and continuously monitor them for anomalies, as well as to respond to mitigate cybersecurity threats.
When threats arise, Heimdal’s EDR provides greater visibility into corporate endpoints and allows for faster response times, stopping an attack at its beginning.
A solid overall cybersecurity posture and enforcing best practices are always the strongest defense against a variety of attack vectors. So choose wisely the security software for your company and always keep your employees up to date about cybersecurity measures.
Andreea is a digital content creator within Heimdal® with a great belief in the educational power of content. A literature-born cybersecurity enthusiast (through all those SF novels…), she loves to bring her ONG, cultural, and media background to this job.