Heimdal Security just completed a widespread intelligence analysis of system software vulnerabilities. Our data clearly shows that the problem of software vulnerabilities is actually growing and you may think that companies already got better at closing security gaps faster.
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The Bad News
The main problem here is that time periods between patches don’t follow and fix the great amount of vulnerabilities that continue to appear.
Some vendors are improving though.
Security holes in software is arguably one of the most used attack vector hackers employ in a modern IT environment, with exploits accounting for 60 – 90% of the attack , depending on which data you look at.
This is precisely one of the reasons why you would think that software companies should be very quick at closing their security gaps, but the actual situation indicates quite the opposite.
If we take a quick look at the most vulnerable 3rd party software in the market, the list narrows in on some of the most used software components in the world.
The Numbers Speak for Themselves
The top 4 pieces of most commonly used vulnerable 3rd party software in 2012 / 2013 / 2014 are:
- Oracle Java Runtime environment
- Adobe Acrobat Reader
- Adobe Flash Player / Plugin
- Apple Quicktime
Of these 4, the Oracle Java Runtime Environment accounts for 180 registered vulnerabilities alone in 2013. That comes to 15 vulnerabilities PER MONTH! The next piece of software on the list is Acrobat Reader with 66 vulnerabilities or 5,5 per month, still quite high, but not as extreme.
Placing them in a table, the 4 appear as below for 2012 / 2013 / 2014 respectively:
If you look closely at the numbers, it is highly concerning that Java has an average of roughly 9 new vulnerabilities discovered every month. That is an extreme number. Looking at Adobe’s products, that number is significantly lower but still very alarming, ranging from 3 vulnerabilities on average in Acrobat Reader to 4 in Adobe Flash Player.
The only decent performer in the field is Apple with their Quicktime software, which has approximately 1,2 vulnerabilities per month and that number appears to be decreasing, while the others show no general improving trend.
On its own it might not be a concern that the numbers of vulnerabilities are high, but for Java for example, the number of vulnerabilities are actually higher than on some Windows operating systems.
Not only that the severity of the vulnerabilities above are extreme as well.
The average severity of each of the vulnerabilities on these products is listed below with a CVSS (Computer vulnerability severity system) score, where 7-10 means a HIGH number!
When showing the data on a visual graph, you have an indication that all 4 products are clearly above the limit of critical vulnerabilities number on average.
So not only is the number of vulnerabilities highly alarming, but it also represents an important attack vector which poses a severe security risk for our computer systems. That becomes relevant because a very commonly used attack vector on our systems today is by linking to URLs which point to malicious content that can exploit known software vulnerabilities.
In fact, another recent study performed by Heimdal and one of its partners showed that 27% of all delivered emails contain malicious URLs, which try to access your PC by using malicious code or exploits.
Naturally, all this concern about exploits only becomes relevant if these 4 pieces of 3rd party software we cover in this article are actually being used, so we also looked into that as well. The data stacks up as below and we took the liberty of combining it with the severity score.
If we place the data on a visual graph, we notice a clear market evolution for Apple Quicktime and the high average usage of the Oracle Java, Adobe Acrobat Reader and Adobe Flash Player software.
All this data is more than scary. Intelligence shows that usage of Java, Acrobat Reader and Adobe Flash Player is very common on business computers and has been for a while. Meanwhile Quicktime is gaining market share and the widespread usage of software is most likely due to the fact that we consume more and more data on the computer and that we access a broader variety of software to do so.
Most likely your private computer system is not much different from a standard business computer, therefore consumers, as well as companies, should be very aware there is a crucial risk here.
Corporate Security Risks are High
We now know 4 key facts which should have your full attention, since they put you or your corporate data at risk:
- The top 4 pieces of vulnerable 3rd party software is and has always been vulnerable to attacks
- Vulnerabilities are severe and there is a high number of them!
- Most computer systems actually use a minimum of 3 top vulnerable software presented here
- Hackers commonly exploit and develop attack vectors for these vulnerabilities
Knowing all this, you may think that manufacturers keep us safe by quickly fixing these problems for their users and customers. Well, our analysis indicates that is not the case.
Take a look below at the graphic which illustrates the data:
Despite the fact that vulnerabilities are of a severe nature (close to wide open) and the fact that in Oracle and Adobe’s cases there are plenty of vulnerabilities to choose from, the time between patches is quite frightening. On average, a patch from Oracle is released every 1,8 months and for Acrobat Reader at every 3,33 months.
Vulnerabilities in Adobe Flash Player are patched significantly faster averaging every month, while Apple Quicktime has a mind blowing 8 months gap time. Imagine what a hacker could do in 8 months! Apple does have by far the fewest number of vulnerabilities, but they still average 1 per month, so it leaves 8 vulnerabilities to choose from, before the gap is closed.
With that in mind, we took the liberty of calculating the average amount of vulnerabilities discovered before a patch is released. Bearing in mind that vulnerabilities may be discovered in blocks and not 1 by 1 – that might skew the data a little. We combined this with the % of systems they are installed on, just to give you an idea of the extent of the problem.
We tried to illustrate the data analyzed, so that you may have an easy overview of the problem at hand:
So why are vulnerabilities a big problem for software manufacturers to deal with? Well, naturally, software manufacturers want to offer more and more features to their users and keep their software cutting edge. By adding new features they create new backdoors and loopholes for hackers to use and exploit, creating more opportunities for hackers that try to obtain your data.
So what can you do to protect yourself or your company?
- Make sure your 3rd party software is as up to date as possible, at all times. You can use an external tool to keep your software patched for you.
- Protect yourself using a Traffic checking service, such as Heimdal Pro/Corp, because most exploit attacks have a vector originating from the Internet. Corporations should potentially add a Bluecoat, CSIS Secure DNS, Palo Alto or Fireeye solution for an extra layer of centralized scanning.
- Use a corporate spam filter to remove phishing or exploits focused on malicious emails. This way, you have 2 layers of protection against malicious URLs, which may be heading for your computer. Consumers can use a client based filter and businesses can used a centralized solution.